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What is Vacuum Coating

Historical Timeline of Vacuum Coating and Vacuum/Plasma Technology

 

Search the Historical Timeline for key events and developments
associated with the history of vacuum coating and
vacuum/plasma technology.

   
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  Prior to WWII (1940)
  1940 - 1975
  1976 - Present
 

 
VACUUM COATING
TECHNOLOGY
 
VACUUM/PLASMA
TECHNOLOGY
   
1600
Prior to 1600
Water (syringe) pump (Galileo; Beekman)
     
1600
Book De Magnete (On the Magnet) (Gilbert)
     
1640
Piston vacuum (air) pump (von Guericke) • Water manometer (Berti)
         
     
1643
Mercury barometer (Torricelli)
         
         
         
     
1654
"Magdeburg hemispheres" experiment (von Guericke)
         
     
1660
Mercury manometer vacuum gauge (sometime prior to 1660) (Boyle)
         
      
1662
Boyle's Law (Boyle)
         
     
1672
Electrostatic ("frictional") electricity-generating machine (von Guericke)
         
     
1678
Picard’s glow (plasma)
   
1700
   
     
1706
Frictional electricity (Hauksbee)
     
~1720
Electrical ("glow") discharge generated (Hauksbee)
   
 
1732
Conduction of electricity & charging by induction (Gray)
         
     
~1745
Leyden jar (air capacitor) (von Kleist)
         
     
1749
Concept of positive and negative charges (Franklin)
         
         
1805
Relation of contact angle to surface energy (Young)
1800
1800
Voltaic pile (battery) (Volta)
     
1801
Law of partial pressures (Dalton)
      
1802
Chemistry in electric spark discharge (Davy)
1817 Aging forms an AR coating on lenses (Fraunhofer)   
1801
Galvanometer (Ampére)
      
1820
Magnetic field around current-carrying wire (Oersted)
         
     
1831
Electromagnetic induction (Faraday)
      
1832
Generation of electricity (Pixii)
         
      
1836
High-voltage induction coil (Callan)
       
1838
Electrical discharge tube research (Faraday)
1839
Arc melting (Hare)   
1850
Leybold founded
      
1851
Rubber produced (Goodyear) • Heraeus founded
1852 Sputtering reported (Grove; Faraday 1854)       
      
1855
Mercury piston pump (Geissler) • Bending of "cathode rays" in a magnetic field (Plücker)
1857
Arc evaporation to form "films" (Faraday)   
1857
Platinum-glass seal (Geissler)
      
1864
Book On the Dynamic Theory of Electromagnetic Fields (Maxwell)
        
1865
Mercury siphon vacuum pump (Sprengel)
           
          
       
1869
"Cathode rays" project "shadows" (Hittorf)
1874
Plasma polymerization reported (deWilde; Thenard)    
1874
McLeod vacuum gauge (McLeod)
           
1877
Sputter (arc?) deposition to form mirrors (Wright)    
1879
Carbon filament lamp {Sprengel pump used in production} (Edison) • Investigations of plasmas (Crookes 1880s)
         
1880
Pyrolysis {CVD} of hydrocabon vapors (Sawyer & Mann)  
 
         
       
1883
Diode conductance ("Edison effect"—thermoelectron emission (Edison)
1884 Patent filed for (issued 1894) on arc deposition and thermal evaporation from solid surface (Edison) • Term "electro vacuous deposition" for arc deposition (Edison)        
        
1885
Inductively excited plasmas {"electrodeless ring discharge"} (Hittorf) • Optical glass plant opened in Germany [Schott]
1887
Vacuum sublimation (Pt) to form films (Nahrwold; Kundt 1888)        
     
1888
Thermoelectron emission (Elster & Geitel)
     
1889
Paschen's rule (Paschen)
1891 Term "electrical evaporation" for sputtering (Crookes) • CVD nickel from carbonyl (Mond)
 
1890
Pfeiffer Vacuum company founded [Germany]
1892 "Seed coat" on wax phonograph masters by sputter deposition (Edison)         
        
1892
Dewar-type liquefied gas storage vessel (Dewar)
        
1894
Isolation of argon from air (Ramsay)
      
1895
Discovery of x-rays (Röntgen) • Stokes Machine Co. founded; later became Stokes Vacuum in 1924
1896
Chemical techniques for forming AR coating were developed • CVD of metals (Aylsworth & de Lodyguine)    
1896
Current rectification (valve tube) (Fleming)
1897
Optical interference measurement of film thickness (Wiener)
       
            
      
1898
Discovery of the electron (Thompson)
            
1902
Patent for sputter deposition of seed-layer of gold on phonograph cylinders (Edison)
1900
1901
Electric "vacuum cleaner" patent (Booth)
1903
Vacuum arc melting (von Bolton)      
     
1905
Electric motor driven vacuum pump (Kaufman & Gaede)
         
     
1906
Invention of the triode vacuum tube {starting the age of vacuum tube electronics} (de Forest) • Pirani vacuum gauge (Pirani) • Thermocouple vacuum gauge (Voege)
1907
Patent for E-beam vacuum melting (Pirani)     
 
1908
Epitaxial film growth (Barker)        
1909
Momentum transfer theory of sputtering (Stark)
   
1909
Triode ionization vacuum gauge (von Baeyer)
1910
Measurement of vapor pressures (Langmuir 1910s & 1920s)
   
1910
General use of oil-sealed rotary vane mechanical pump
~1911 First use of the term "spluttering" (later sputtering)
        
        
 
1912
Vacuum evaporation from crucible (Pringsheim & Pohl)     
1912
First neon sign
1913
Studies of equilibrium vapor pressure (Langmuir; Knudsen 1915; Knacke & Stranski 1956; Hoenig 1962)     
1913
Mercury vapor diffusion pump (Langmuir; Gaede 1915) • Molecular drag pump (Gaede; Holweck 1923)
1915
Sputter deposition to form foils (Edison)
        
1917
Sputter deposited thin-film resistors on glass rods  
1916
Hot cathode ionization gauge (Buckley)
     
1917
Bourdon vacuum gauge (Lorenz)
     
1919
Short-wave radio • Edwards High Vacuum founded {UK}
         
1920
Sputtering theory (Guntherschulzer 1920s & 1930s)
 1920
1920
Langmuir probe (Langmuir)
         
     
1921
Plasma desorption from surfaces (Campbell)
     
1922
Book Production and Measurement of High Vacuum (Dushman)
     
1924
Rotary piston vacuum pump [Stokes]
   
1925
   
     
1926
Oil in diffusion pump (Burch; Hickman 1936)
      
 
1928
Thermal evaporation from filament (Ritschl)       
     
1929
Capacitance manometer vacuum gauge (Olsen & Hurst)
1930
Sputter roll coating of silver on cloth (Germany)
1930
   
      
 
   
 
   
          
1933
Filament evaporation of aluminum (Strong) • "Reactive sputter deposition" (Overbeck) • Indirect E-beam evaporation (O’Brian & Skinner) • Gas evaporation to form very fine particles (Pfund) • Plasma activation of reactive gas during evaporation (Heitman; Berraz)
  
1933
Neoprene (artificial) rubber (Dupont)
          
1934
Sputter roll coating of gold onto glassine (Kurz; Whiley) • Plasma cleaning of glass for film deposition (Bauer; Strong 1935)  
1934
Consolidated Vacuum Co. [CVC] started as a division of Eastman Kodak
         
1935
Evaporation roll coating of Cd:Mg and Zn for Metal-Paper capacitors ([Bosch]; Mansbridge 1905) • Aluminum metallization of 100" Hooker Telescope on Mt. Wilson, CA (Strong) • Single-layer AR coatings on optical lenses (Strong; Smakula [Zeiss]) • Flame cleaning of glass (Strong; Aitken 1893; Raleigh 1920) • Studies of growth morphology of metallic films (Andrade, Da & Martindale) • Magnetically enhanced sputtering (inverted cylindrical magnetron)(Penning)      
     
 
1937
Sealed beam headlights with aluminized reflector (Wright [GE]) • Evaporation roll-coating (Whiley)  
1937
Metal oil diffusion pump (Malter) • Klystron microwave tube (Varian Brothers) • Distillation Products, Inc., founded
         
1938
Evaporation onto an ion bombarded surface {patent} (Berghaus) • Book Procedures in Experimental Physics (Strong)
 
1938
Liquid air cold traps on oil diffusion pumps (late 1930s) • Vacuum freeze drying [Stokes]
         
1939
Two-layer AR coating (Cartwright & Turner) • AR-coated projection lenses for movie Gone With the Wind (Bausch & Lomb)  
1939
Book The Electrochemistry of Gases and Other Dielectrics (Glocker & Lind)
1940
E-beam evaporation (Ruhle) • Cylindrical post magnetron (Penning & Mobius)
1940
   
     
1941
National Research Corporation founded, later NRC Equipment Corporation, acquired by Norton (1965), acquired by Varian (1971)
1942
Triple-layer AR coating (Geffcken) • Metal ion sources for isotope separation (1940s)  
 
1943
Conference on "Applications of Metallic Fluoride Reflection Reducing Films to Optical Elements"
 
1943
Mass spectrometer leak detector (Backus; Noir 1940)
         
1944
Electron cleaning of glass (Rice; Dimmick)      
         
1945
Multilayer optical filters (Banning)
1945
   
         
1946
Film thickness measurement by X-ray adsorption (Friedman & Birks) • Goodfellow Corporation{UK} founded  
1946
Balzers was founded • Vacuum Electronic Equipment Company (VEECO) founded
         
1947
Aluminizing of 200" Palomar telescope mirror (Strong)  
1947
Invention of the transistor (Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattin)
{started the age of solid-state electronics}
         
1948
Optical Coating Laboratory Inc. [OCLI] was founded • Flash evaporation by dropped particles (Harris & Siegel) • Film thickness control by optical transmission (Dufour) • Modern CVD processing begins (Lander & Germer)  
1948
ECR plasmas formed (late 1940s) • Measurement of outgassing of materials (Hogg & Duckworth) • Varian Associates founded
         
1949
Studies of growth morphology of non-metallic films (Schulz)      
         
1950
Sputtering theory (1950s & 1960s) (Wehner) • Semiconductor industry (1950s to present) • Hybrid microelectronics industry (1950s to present) • Cold mirror (Turner; Hoffman 1922; Schröder 1951) • Decorative metallizing of plastic (early 1950s) (Holland 1951; Hartman & Schneider 1951)
1950
1950
Cold panels in vacuum chambers (1950s and 1960s) (Meissner 1954) • Spinning rotor vacuum gauge (Beams) • Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge • Gas ballasting of mechanical pumps (Gaede)
1951
Providence Metallizing foundedOCLI moved from Washington DC to Santa Rosa, CA • Magnetically focused eleelectron beam evaporation source (Holland)
     
1952
Sputter cleaning to produce atomically clean surfaces (early 1950s) • Reactive evaporation (Auwarter; Brinsmaid 1953) • Plasma polymerized films for corrosion protection (early 1950s) • Use of collimation for film deposition (Hibi)  
1952
Inverted cold cathode magnetron vacuum gauge (Beck & Bisbane) • ULVAC Japan founded • Consolidated Vacuum Corporation (CVC) founded
         
1953
Scotchlite™ Reflective Sheeting made by roll-to-roll coating [3M] • Term "reactive sputtering" introduced (Veszi) • Plasma deposition of (a–C:H) (Schmellenmeier)
 
1953
American Vacuum Society [AVS] founded • Temescal Metallurgical Corp [later BOCCT] founded for vacuum meltingGranville-Phillips founded • Getter pumping with evaporated Ti (Herb) •
         
1954
Long-focus E-beam gun (Pierce) • Epitaxial growth of Ge on Ge (Christensen & Teal) • Evaporation roll coater built [Leybold Systems]  
1954
Hollow cathode effect studied (Little & von Engle) • Hot-cathode Magnetron Vacuum gauge (Conn & Daglish)
         
1955
Electron beam evaporation for thin film deposition became commonplace (Ruhle 1940) • rf sputtering of dielectrics proposed (Wehner) • Book Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Heavens) • Crystallographic effect on sputtering yield (Wehner)
1955
1955
Sputter cleaning of metal vacuum-surfaces for fusion devices (mid-1950s)
         
1956
First-surface metallizing of interior auto trim [Ford Motor Co.] • Crystallographic effects on sputtering yield (Wehner) • Book Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Holland)      
         
1957
Vacuum cadmium plating accepted by the aircraft industry {Mil spec issued} • Reactive evaporation of films for optical coatings (Brismaid et al.; Auwarter 1960{plasma activation of reactive gases suggested in Auwarter patent}) • Society of Vacuum Coaters [SVC] founded  
1957
NRC founded • High Vacuum Equipment Corporation founded • Turbomolecular pump (Becker) • Consolidated Electrodynamics Corporation [CEC] founded
         
1958
Epitaxial growth of films (Gunther) • NASA founded  
1958
Kinney Manuf. Div of New York Air Brake [Kinney Vacuum]
founded •
First Pfeiffer turbomolecular pump [Pfeiffer]
Thermionics Laboratory founded • Sputter ion pump (Hall)
         
1959
Air-to-air strip coater [Temescal; NRC] • First study of "sculpted thin films" (STF) (Young & Kowal)  
1959
Cold cathode magnetron gauge (Redhead) • Float glass {replaced rolled-plate and drawn-plate glass manufacturing} (Pilkington) • Varian Vacuum Division founded
         
1960
Plasma activation of polymer surfaces for adhesion (early 1960s) (Sharp & Schornhorn) • Ion sources for space propulsion developed (1960s) (Kaufman [NASA]) • Quartz crystal oscillator film thickness monitor • Plasma polymerization of styrene dielectric (Goodman)ont>
1960
1960
Hi-volume freeze drying plants [Stokes]
         
1961
Low-E coatings on glass [Leybold early 1960s] • Sputtering yield of elements (Laegried & Wehner; Yamamura, Matasunami & Itoh 1983)  
1961
Modern capacitance manometer gauge (Wolfe) • Varian founded from National Research Corporation [NRC]MKS Instruments founded
         
1962
Sputter profiling for chemical analysis (early 1960s) • Arc vapor deposition of carbon (Massey) and metals (Lucas et al) • RF sputtering of dielectrics for cleaning (Stuart & Wehner; Anderson, Mayer & Wehner) • Leybold Vacuum Products was founded in the USA • Vapor pressure of elements was compiled (Hoenig) • "Bias sputter deposition" patent (Wehner)  
1962
Alcatel [France] founded • Granville-Phillips moved to Boulder, CO • R.D. Mathis founded • Book Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Techniques (Dushman)
         
1963
Open-ended, in-line (Ta and TaN) coater (Charschan, Glenn & Westgaard • Patent filed for Ion Plating process (Mattox) • "Plasma deposition" (later PECVD) (Alt, Ing & Laendle) • Book series Physics of Thin Films (edited by Hass, et al)      
         
1964
PECVD of photovoltaic films (Bradley & Hammes; Spear & Lecomber 1972) • Denton Vacuum founded • Book Thin Films (ASM) • Closed-end, in-line sputter deposition line (Savach, Geissinger & Schockley 1964)  
1964
Monopole RGA (G.E.)
         
1965
Bias sputter deposition (Maissel & Schaible) • Pulsed Laser Deposition {PLD} (Smith & Turner) • Multi-vacuum-zone web metallizer for cellulose acetate film [Galileo] • Plasma-enhanced CVD (Sterling & Swann)
1965
   
         
1966
Ion plating of aluminum on uranium reactor parts (Mattox & Rebarchik) • Ion plating with soft metals for lubrication (Spalvins, Przybyszewski & Buckley [NASA]) • Vacuum Metallurgical Co. founded [ULVAC]Stick-on heat reflective window film [3M] • Book The Use of Thin Films in Physical Investigations (edited by Anderson) • RF sputter deposition of dielectric films (Davidse & Maissel) • Book Vapor Deposition (terms "Physical Vapor Deposition"[PVD] and "Chemical Vapor Deposition" [CVD] introduced)(Powell, Oxley & Blocker)  
1966
Comdel was founded
         
1967
RF sputter deposition of chromium coating on razor blades (Lane [Schick]) • Ion plating patent (Mattox) • Triode sputter deposition (Baun; Wan, Chambers & Carmichael 1973; Tisone 1975) • Film deposition by exploding wires in good vacuum (Mattox, Mullendore & Rebarchik) • Airco Temescal [later BOCCT] founded  
1967
Commercial quadrapole RGA • CTI-Cryogenics founded Hollow cathode discharge melting furnace [ULVAC] Leybold and Heraeus merge

         
1968
Ion plating small parts in a rotating cage (Mattox &
Rebarchik; Carpenter, Klein & McCrary {"Ivadizing"—later called Ion Vapor Deposition {IVD} in the aerospace industry}) • Patent filed for 270º E-beam evaporator (Hanks) • MOCVD (Ruhrwein; Manaselvit) •
Sierracin-Interex Div. [later CPFilms] developed e-beam deposited heatable window films (late 1960s)Dektak™ stylus profilometer (VEECO) • Book Thin Film Technology (Berry, Hall & Harris) • Magnetron (closed-path) patent applied for (Clarke)
 
1968
Studies of high energy neutrals from ions reflected from cathodes (Jepsen; Vaumoron & DeBiasio 1970)
         
1969
Magnetron sputtering from inside hemispherical section (Mullay) • Sputter coater built [Leybold Systems] • Diagram of evaporated film morphology (Movchan & Demchishin {MD diagram}) • MCrAlY coatings on turbine blades • Book Thin Film Phenomena (Chopra)  
1969
Association of Vacuum Equipment Manufacturers [AVEM] founded • Electronic Navigation Industries founded (name changed to ENI in 1989) • Hauzer Industries, The Netherlands, founded
         
1970
Hollow cathode electron source for evaporation ([ULVAC]; Morley & Smith 1972) • High rate multilayer optical coater [OCLI] • Hollow Cathode ion plating system [ULVAC] • Book Handbook of Thin Film Technology (edited by Maissel & Glang)
1970
1970
Continuous vacuum coater for glass [Stokes]
         
1971
Incorporation of large amounts of gas in deposited films by ion bombardment (Mattox & Kominiak; Cuomo & Gambino 1977) • Hard carbon {DLC} films (Aisenberg & Chabot; Weissmantel 1982) • Patent filed for sputter gun (Clarke) • Cathodic random arc vaporization source (Snaper; Sablev 1974) • Patent filed for parallel-plate reactor PECVD (Reinberg) Paper metallized for cigarette packaging [Galileo] • Ion plating with an e-beam evaporation source (Chambers & Carmichael) • Magnetron patent granted (Clarke)      
         
1972
Ion Cluster Beam Deposition (Tagaki) • Sputter deposition using ion gun in good vacuum (Weissmantel) • Effect of concurrent bombardment on film morphology (Mattox & Kominiak; Bunshah & Juntz) • Term "Activated Reactive Evaporation" (Bunshah & Raghuram) Web coater delivered by General Engineering [later General Vacuum Equipment]  
1972
Gas incorporation in surfaces by ion bombardment (Kornelsen; Chleck et al.1963) • CVC acquired by Bendix Corporation and reverted to CVC Products (1973)
         
1973
Ion plating used as a "strikecoat" for electroplating (Bell & Thompson) • Tico Titanium founded • Carbon films from ion source (Aisenberg & Chabot) • Magnetron (including planar) patent applied for (Corbani, Sloan Technology) • First commercial use of planar magnetron (Temescal/Cormia) • RCA Selectavision video disc
     
         
1974
UV/Ozone cleaning reported (Sowell, Cuthrell, Bland & Mattox) • Compressive stress in ion bombarded films (Bland, Kominiak & Mattox; Hoffman & Thornton {"atomic peening} 1977) • Planar magnetron patent applied for (Chapin) • Conference
on Structure/Property Relationships in Thick Films and Bulk Coatings, which became the International Conference on Metallugical Coatings (ICMC)
 
1974
Polycold Systems founded
         
1975
Reactive ion plating (Murayama; Chin & Elsner) • Post cathode magnetron sputtering patent (Penfold & Thornton) • MBE of III-V semiconductors (Cho & Arthur) • "Alternating Ion Plating" (Schiller) • Chrome-coated plastic auto grill [Chevrolet] • ULVAC North America founded • Corbani magnetron patent granted
1975
   
         
1976
Ion gun used to provide concurrent bombardment of depositing film (Weissmantel)  
1976
Ionization in arcs (Daalder) • Closed-loop pressure control system using Baratron capacitance manometer [MKS] MDC Vacuum Products Corporation founded
         
1977
Mid-frequency planar magnetron reactive sputter deposition (Cormia), [Airco Inc] • Structure Zone Model of film growth by sputtering (Thornton; Messier 1984) • Sputtered heat mirror films on webs (Chahroudi [Suntek Research]) • First International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings (Chairman, Bunshah)      
         
1978
Light diffracting {"prismatic"} films on webs [Coburn Corp] • Steered arc vaporization source (Dorodnov) • Plasma duct arc vaporization (Aksenov et al.) Sierracin [later CPFilms] developed sputter deposited ITO window films • Microflex™ flexible circuit sheet {Cu on polyimide} [3M]  
1978
Line of lobe booster blowers introduced [Stokes]
         
1979
Commercial in-line Low-E glass coaters • Commercialization of sputter deposited web coatings (late 1970s and early 1980s) (Cormia & Chahroudi) • Planar magnetron cathode patented [BOCCT] • In-line high-rate glass sputter coater [Leybold Systems] • Southwall Technologies founded • Chapin magnetron patent granted  
1979
Southwall Technologies founded
         
1980
Ion gun to modify stress in evaporated chromium films (Hoffman & Gaerttner) First large-scale sputter roll coater [Leybold for Southwall] • Arc vapor deposition commercialized in the USA [Multi-Arc] • Flex Products Division founded for web coating [OCLI] • Commercial Ag-based thermal controlled coatings [Leybold Systems] First commercial wide web coating machine [Southwall Corporation]
1980
1980
Book Vacuum Arcs, Theory and Applications edited by (Lafferty) • Book Glow Discharges (Chapman) • Thermal FM/MFC instruments [MKS]
         
1981 PVD hard coatings on tools (early 1980s) • Introduction of security OVIDs • Open-ended, multiple-chamber deposition of amorphous solar cells (Masatsugu, Cannella, Ovshinsky) • Decorative/functional coating of decorative hardware (early 1980s) [Leybold]Sputter ion plating for decorative coating [Leybold Systems] Sputter roll coater [Leybold Systems]High-rate {ITO-Ag-ITO} in-line coater [Leybold Systems]Silverlux™ first-surface silvered reflective film [3M]
 
1981
Flex Products Division of OCLI formed (separated from OCLI in 1988 to ICI, returned in 1994) • Comdel developed industry first solid-state RF generator for plasma applications
         
1982
Commercial gas evaporation of ultrafine particles [ULVAC] • Rotatable magnetron cylinder sputtering cathode patent (McKelvey) • Sputtering Materials Inc. [SMI] founded • Rotatable planar sputtering target [Tico Titanium] • Vacuum evaporated OEL device (Vincent, Barlow, Hann & Roberts)  
1982
Spinning rotor vacuum gauge introduced [MKS]
         
1983
Bombardment-enhanced chemical reactivity reported
(Lincoln, Geis, Pang & Efremow) • Compact discs [CDs] introduced [Phillips & Sony 1974–1983] •
Hauzer Techno Coating founded • Commercial web coater for magnetic tapes [Leybold Systems] • Web metallizer with evaporation zone under vacuum during roll-change [Galileo]
 
1983
JT-60 Nuclear fusion vacuum system [ULVAC] • Hauzer Techno Coating, The Netherlands founded
         
         
         
1985
Patent on vacuum evaporated multilayer {PML} polymer films [GE]
1985
   
         
1986
Unbalanced magnetron sputtering (Windows & Savvides) General Vacuum Equipment [GVE] founded from General Engineering  
1986
MKS purchased HPS
         
1987
Laser ablation deposition of high Tc superconductor films (Dijkkamp et al) • End-Hall gridless ion source (Kaufman, Robinson & Seddo) • European Metallizers Association [EMA] founded • OCLI (Flex Products Division) develops optically variable ink pigment (ChromaFlair ™)Sage Industrial Sales founded • Bipolar pulsed sputtering from single magnetron (Quazi)  
1987
Commercial cluster tool (Applied Materials) • Leybold-Heraeus purchased by Degussa AG
         
1988
Dual cathode mid-frequency sputtering source (Este & Westwood) • Airco Solar Products became Airco Coating Technology [BOCCT] • Commercial cylindrical-rotating magnetron {DC C-Mag™} [BOCCT] • Pressure pulsing for controlling stress in sputter deposited films (Cuthrell & Mattox)  
1988
Stokes Vacuum Division founded
         
1989
SVC Corporate Sponsor Program established • Courtaulds Performance Films founded [later CPFilms] • Goodfellow Corporation opened USA office  
1989
All metal MFC’s [MKS] • Goodfellow opens USA office • SVC Corporate Sponsor Program established
         
1990
Commercial dual AC mid-frequency magnetrons {TwinMag™} [Leybold] • Web coater for banknote security [ULVAC] • Staggered Boats for web coating {AIMCAL award} [Leybold Systems] • MF reactive sputter deposition of Al2O3 [Leybold Systems]
1990
1990
Comdel developed industry-first delivered power detector/RF control system
         
1991
Catalina Coatings [later Delta V Technologies] established on GE evaporated Polymer-multilayer {PML} technology • Commercial ZrN decorative coater [Leybold Systems] • "Directed deposition" using collimated sputtering (Rossnagel et al) • Rod-shaped cathodic arc source (Vergason)  
 
         
1992
ULVAC Technologies founded • Commercial reactive pulse-power dual magnetron sputtering (Scherer, Schmitt, Latz & Schanz)  
1992
Hybrid turbomolecular/molecular drag pump • Hauzer Techno Coating acquired intellectual property rights of Vac-Tec Systems
         
1993
Patent on DLC coating on razor blades [Gillette]  
1993
MeiVac founded • By-pass blowers introduced [Stokes]
1994
"Directed deposition" using sputtering "i-PVD" (Rossnagel & Hopwood)
 
1994
Comdel developed industry-first microprocessor-controlled hybrid, high-power RF generator • ENI became the first manufacturer of RF and DC high-power conversion systems to achieve ISO certification • 700/800 Series of Mini-Baratron Capacitance Manometer [MKS]
1995
Airco Coating Technology renamed to BOC Coating Technology [BOCCT] • silicon oxide barrier coating patent [QLF™ BOCCT] • Cluster in-line sputtering system for auto headlights [Leybold Systems]
1995
 
         
1997
Catalina Coatings renamed Delta V Technologies • NeoVac founded • AC-C-Mag™ technology introduced [BOCCT] • Copper interconnects on silicon {PVD TaN & Cu seed} [IBM] In-line cluster coater for decorative coatings [Leybold Systems] • Leybold Technologies renamed as Leybold Systems • MultiArc + Bernex becomes Ionbond  
1997
Association of Vacuum Equipment Manufacturers [AVEM] name changed to AVEM International
         
1998
Production of razor blades coated with DLC using a filtered arc source [Gillette]      
         
1999
Delta V Technologies delivers large vertical glass coater • Courtaulds Performance Films becomes CPFilms Inc. • Balzers Process Systems (BPS) acquires Leybold Systems  
1999
Consolidated Vacuum Corporation [CVC] purchases Commonwealth Scientific Corporation [CSC] • OCLI merges with JDS Uniphase Corporation • Applied Films and Leybold Large-Area Coatings merge

   
2000
   
     
2001
BOC Edwards acquires Stokes Vacuum
         
         
   
 
   

 
Prepared by Donald M. Mattox
Copyright © 2003
Society of Vacuum Coaters
All rights reserved
Contributions and corrections
to the Historical Timeline
are requested.
E-mail comments to svcinfo@svc.org

 

(Click here for the PVD Book Bibliography)




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Society of Vacuum Coaters
71 Pinon Hill Place NE
Albuquerque, NM 87122
Phone 505/856-7188 • Fax 505/856-6716
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